Abduction - in functional anatomy, is a movement which draws a limb away from the median (Sagittal) plane, or midline of the body.

Adduction - movement which brings a limb — arm or leg — closer to the sagittal plane, or midline of the body.

AFO – ankle foot orthosis.

ALS –amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the United States, the condition is often referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease. The disorder causes muscle weakness and atrophy throughout the body as both the upper and lower motor neurons degenerate, ceasing to send messages to muscles. Unable to function, the muscles gradually weaken, develop fasciculations (twitches) because of denervation, and eventually atrophy because of that denervation.

Ambulatory – pertaining to, or capable of walking.

Aspiration – the act of inhaling fluid or a foreign body into the bronchi and lungs. Aspiration pneumonia can occur.

Bilateral – pertaining to, involving, or affecting two or both sides.

Cerebral Hemorrhage - hemorrhage that occurs within the brain tissue.

CO – cervical orthosis.

Contracture – restriction of full range of motion due to shortening of adaptive tissue, neurological tone, or a combination of the two.

CP – cerebral palsy is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious conditions that cause physical disability in human development from damage to the brain.

CVA – cerebral vascular accident, commonly referred to as “stroke.”

Decubitus ulcer – “Bedsores,” more properly known as pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers, are lesions caused by many factors such as: unrelieved pressure; friction; humidity; shearing forces; temperature; age; continence and medication; to any part of the body, especially portions over bony or cartilaginous areas.

DIP – distal interphalangeal joints. The most distal joints of the fingers.

Dysphagia - having trouble swallowing or eating. Can be intensified by poor neck posture.

End Stage Alzheimer’s disease – may develop neurological tone, many times the drawing inward will be severe and if not treated appropriately, may develop deformities. May become incontinent of bowel and bladder and be unable to chew and swallow.

EO – elbow orthosis.

Extension - movement of a joint that results in increased angle between two bones or body surfaces at a joint. Extension usually results in straightening of the bones or body surfaces involved.

Extension – the position that a limb assumes when it is stretched.

Flexion - movement which brings body or limbs into a bent position that decreases the angle between bones.

Flexion – the position that a limb assumes when it is bent.

FO – finger orthosis.

HFO – wrist finger orthosis.

HKO – hip knee orthosis.

Holistic – all parts make up the whole and have an effect on the whole. Each system of the body has direct and indirect effects on all other systems.

KAFO – knee ankle foot orthosis.

LLPS – low load passive stretch.

LSO – brace designed to support the Lumbar, and Sacrum sections of the spine.

LSO – lumbar sacral orthosis.

MCP – metacarpal phalangeal joints – commonly called “knuckles.” The joints that join the hand and fingers.

MS – multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. Symptoms can include, visual disturbances, muscle weakness, trouble with coordination and balance, sensations such as numbness, prickling, or "pins and needles," thinking and memory problems. The cause is unknown.

Neurological Tone – involuntary contracture of muscles due to some sort of trauma/disease to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

Orthopedic Orthosis –Generally rigid splints consisting of metal in order to keep limbs in proper alignment by limiting motion in particular planes to facilitate healing or function.

Orthosis – external brace.

Orthotics - Medical science dealing with specialized mechanical devices to support or assist weakened or abnormal joints or limbs.

Parkinson’s disease - is a degenerative disease of the brain (central nervous system) that often impairs motor skills, speech, and other functions. It belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders.

PIP – proximal interphalangeal joints. The joints of the fingers closest to the hand.

Restorative Orthosis – provides resistance while allowing the patient to move with neurological tone, then returning the body part to the preset position. Designed to relengthen shortened tissue with prolonged LLPS.

ROM – Range Of Motion, the area through which a joint may normally be freely and painlessly moved, the range of flexion and extension of a joint.

Sarcomere – made up of actin and myosis (proteins) that are vital to muscle movement. A muscle cell from a bicep may contain 100,000 sarcomeres.

SCI – spinal cord injury. Affects are determined by the level of the injury and the degree.

Shortened Tissue – body tissues (muscle, ligaments, tendons, skin) adapting to a contracted state, actually preventing movement past the contracted state without long-term therapy.

SO – shoulder orthosis.

Spasticity – the quality of moving or acting in spasms.

TBI – traumatic brain injury. Affects are determined by the location of the injury and the severity.

Thermoplastic – A plastic that, after heated to a certain temperature, can be easily molded without losing any characteristics once it has cooled. The plastic can be re-heated and molded many times without permanent deformation.

TLSO brace – brace designed to support the Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacrum sections of the spine.

WHFO – wrist hand finger orthosis.

WO – wrist orthosis.